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    1. 英語學科網
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      期末英語知識點總結


      [1.定語從句在什么情況下用whose 引導]

      whose 用于代替"表示人或物意義"的先行詞,在從句中作定語,

      Whose 常表達"某人的、某物的"之意。

      Do you know the name of that girl whosebrother is your roommate ?

      Water whose boiling point is at 100 degreeCentigrade has no color, no flavor.

      沸點在攝氏100 度的水無色、無味。

      [2.定語從句引導詞that 和which 的區別]

      定語從句中的8 種情況,只能用that 引導

      1.在從句中為了避免與疑問詞who 重復時

      2.從句修飾詞被the one 修飾時

      3.從句修飾詞被含有人和物的名詞時

      4.從舉所修飾詞被everything, anything, something 等不定代詞修飾時

      5.從句所修飾詞被all , more, any 等不定代詞修飾時

      6.從句所修飾的詞又被the only , the very(強調語氣)the last, the same 修

      飾時

      7.從句修飾的詞又被敘述詞修飾時

      8.修飾的詞被形容詞最高級修飾時

      [3. Turn 的幾個短語]

      turn down 不接受,把...調小

      turn into sth. 轉變

      turn off 關閉, 使...停止

      turn on 打開,是...開始

      turn out 終于成為...

      turn out a light 關燈

      turn over 把...翻轉

      turn up 到達

      以上的turn 均為動詞詞性

      in turn 逐個的

      take turn at sth.=take it in turns to dosth.逐個做某事

      turing 轉彎口

      以上的turn 為名詞詞性

      [4.幾個道路的區別]

      way 范指一切的路

      path 人或動物踩踏而成的小徑

      street 兩旁有建筑的

      road 供車輛行駛的

      highway 公路

      [5.幾個旅游的區別]

      journey 指有明確方向的,長途的,陸路的旅行,通常比較辛苦.

      travel 范指旅行

      voyage 多指海路或空間的長途旅行

      trip 短距離的.又回到出發地的.

      tour 巡游

      [6.bed 的用法]

      n.[C]

      be in bed 是臥床睡覺

      The children are in bed.孩子們都在床上呢

      in the bed 是自作自受的意思

      可以與lie on thebed 轉換

      vt.

      1. 為...提供床鋪(或宿處)[(+down)]

      2. 把...安置在(某種基礎上),將...嵌入[O]

      The bullet bedded itself in the wall.

      這顆子彈嵌進了墻內。

      3. 把...栽于苗床(或花壇)[(+out)]

      They bedded the plants in good soil.

      他們將這些秧苗栽在沃土中。

      vi.

      1. 睡,臥[(+down)]

      I'll bed down on the sofa.

      我就睡在沙發上。

      [7.備注:句中避免重復的代詞用法]

      在英語中,如果一個句子中出現兩次同一個詞.通常要換用代詞來代替前面提到的事物.

      the ones 和those 代替復數名詞

      that 代替單數名詞和不可數名詞

      [8.備注:主動變被動要加to 的用法]

      在主動語態中,使讓動詞(make , have , let)和感官動詞(see , Look , watch , notice ,listen, hear , feel , find)后必省略to ,但在被動語態中必須加上to

      例:在教室里我們聽見他唱了這首歌

      we heard him sing this song in theclassroom.

      he was heard to sing this song by us in theclassroom.

      [9.強調句式的用法]

      由It's ....that/who....構成,中間的關系詞必須是that/who,沒有其他詞的可能性。

      It's ....that/who....的強調句型只是為了強調某一成分,而不充當成分。所以它和It作形式主語,真正的主語從句后置的情況有所不同。

      請看以下2 個例子就很容易分辨出2 者不同。eg:

      1. It'snecessary that we should learn english.(主語從句)

      2. It'snot until he got off the bus that he realized she was the daughter ofheadmaster.(強調句型)

      因為強調句型中的It's....that/who....在句子中不充當任何成分。所以去掉后句子依然完整。

      例子2 去掉It's....that/who....后就成了

      until he got off the bus he realized shewas the daughter of headmaster

      而例子1 去掉后句子則不完整。

      [10.if 和whether 的區別]

      (1)if 和whether 都可以引導賓語從句,常常可以互換,表示“是否”。如:

      I don’t know whether(=if)I should tell him.

      我不知道是否應該告訴他。

      (2)但兩者也有微妙的差別,請注意whether 可與or not 連用,而if 不可以

      在句首時用whether,而不用if,在介詞后用whether,而不用if,引導主語從句時用whether,而不是if,引導同位語從句時用whether,而不用if,表示“如果”時用if,而不用whether。如:

      I don’t know whether he will come or not.

      Whether you take part in or not the resultwill be the same.

      你參不參加結果都是一樣的。

      It depends on whether he can solve theproblem.

      那取決于他能否解決這個問題。

      He can’t decide whether to visit her ornot.

      Whether he will come is still a question.

      (3)例題分析。

      1、Only one of the books is ____ . ( NMET 86)

      A. worth to read B. worth being read

      C. worth of reading D. worth reading

      此題答案為D。Sth.作主語時,be worth 后應跟動名詞,或sth. be worthy of being done。

      2、Rather than_____ on a crowded bus, he alwaysprefers ____ a bicycle.

      A. ride; ride B. riding; riding

      C. ride; to ride D.riding; to ride

      此題答案為C。句子為“寧愿干……而不愿干……”的常用句型。

      此類句型還有wouldrather do ……than do……和prefer doing sth. to doing sth.

      3、The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it’svery comfortable to _____.

      A. sit B. sit on C. be sat D. be sat on

      此題答案為B。句型為“主語+ be + adj. + to do”,常用不定式主動式代替被動式。如:

      It was hard to choose.

      The ice is hard enough to skate on.

      這冰夠硬,可以在上面滑冰。

      [11. 辨析: but; except ; besides]

      except prep.除...以外(在整體中除去一部分)

      except+n./pron./介詞短語/to do (有時to 可以省略)

      eg.We're succeed except Yang.除了楊之外我們都成功了.

      I looked everywhere except in the bedroom.除了臥室我哪個地方都找了.

      But I. conj.

      II. prep. [用于no, nobody, nothing, all, who, where 等詞后]除...以外

      eg. 除了Jim 誰還會做這樣的傻事?

      Who but Jim would do such an foolish thing.

      除了兩把椅子外房間里什么也沒有.

      There's nothing but two chairs in the room.

      等于except, 但還有一些區別,but 著重整體且常用在

      no,nobody,nothing,all,who,where 等次的后面.except 不受此限,卻著重在除

      去的那部分.

      eg.The window is never opened except insummer. 那扇窗子除夏天外從不打開.

      Except + to do 時to 可以省略

      eg. He did nothing except (to)work.他除了工作什么也不做.

      but ; except 除...以外表示從整體減去部分時.可換用

      We're all here but/except Mary.

      besides prep. 除...以外(還有...)

      eg .除了他們都去以外還有Tom 也去了.

      They all went there besides Tom.

      Except + 動詞不定式時[當句中的謂語是do 或動詞+ to do 形式,賓語是anything,everything,nothing,不定式符號to 可以省略]

      eg.除了睡覺她什么也不想做.

      She doesn't want to do anything except (to)sleep.

      [12.辨析: little;a little;few;a few]

      few 修飾復數名詞"少,幾乎沒有"

      a few 修飾復數名詞"一些"

      little 修飾不可數名詞"少,幾乎沒有"

      a little 修飾不可數名詞"一點"

      a little 還可以修飾adj.eg.a little tired

      [13. aloud/ loud / loudly 區別]

      aloud/ loud / loudly

      aloud ,loud 和loudly 都可以表示“大聲地”,但在用法上有區別。

      ①aloud 強調發出的聲音能被聽見,意思為“出聲地”或“大聲地”,常用read ,call 等動詞連用。例如:

      Please read the text aloud.

      ②loud 意為“響亮地”、“大聲”或“高聲地”,側重發出的音量大,傳得遠,一般多用來修飾speak ,talk ,laugh 等動詞。loud 還可用作形容詞。例如:

      Speak louder, please, or no one will hearyou.

      ③loudly 意為“響亮地”,其基本意義與loud 相同,還常與ring ,knock 等動詞連用。loudly 放在動詞前后均可,含有“喧鬧”或“嘈雜”的意味。例如:

      Suddenly the bell on the wall rang loudly.

      [14. 反意疑問句的20 種特殊形式]

      反意疑問句的20 種特殊形式

      1.陳述部分的主語是I'm...句型時,疑問部分要用aren'tI。如:

      I'm an English teacher, aren't I? 我是一名英語老師,不是嗎?

      2.陳述部分是感嘆句時,疑問部分用be +主語。如:

      What beautiful hats, aren't they? 多么漂亮的帽子,不是嗎?

      3.陳述部分是省去主語的祈使句時,疑問部分用will you。如:

      Don't be late next time, will you? 下次不要遲到了,好嗎?

      Come here, will you / won't you? 到這兒來,好嗎?

      注意:Let's 開頭的祈使句,疑問部分用shall we,Let us 開頭的祈使句,疑問部分用will you。如:

      Let's start with the song, shall we? 咱們以這首歌開始,好嗎?

      Let us help you, will you? 讓我幫助你,好嗎?

      4.陳述部分的謂語是wish,疑問部分要用may +主語。如:

      I wish to go to Beijing, may I? 我希望去北京,好嗎?

      5.陳述部分

      用no, nothing,nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等否定含義的詞時,疑問部分用肯定含義。如:

      They never go there, do they ? 他們從不去那兒,是嗎?

      6.含有ought to 的反意疑問句,陳述部分是肯定的,疑問部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主語。如:He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he? 他應該知道該做什么,對嗎?

      7.陳述部分有have to+v. (had to + v.),疑問部分常用don't +主語,(didn't +主語)。如:

      We have to sleep here, don't we? 我們必須睡在這兒,對吧。

      8.must 在表“推測”時,根據其推測的情況來確定反意疑問句。如:

      He must be Tom, isn't he ? 他一定是湯姆,不是嗎?

      It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it? 明天肯定要下雨,是嗎?

      9.陳述部分的謂語是usedto 時,疑問部分用didn't +主語或usen't +主語。

      如:He used to be a bad boy, didn't he ? / usen'the ? 他過去是個壞男孩,是吧?

      10.陳述部分有hadbetter + v.,疑問句部分用hadn't you。

      如:You'd better go there now, hadn't you? 你最好現在去那兒,好嗎?

      11.陳述部分有wouldrather +v.,疑問部分多用wouldn't +主語。

      如:He would rather read it ten times than reciteit, wouldn't he ? 他寧可讀十遍也不愿意背誦,是嗎?

      12.陳述部分有You'dlike to +v.,疑問部分用wouldn't +主語。

      如:You'd like to go tobed earlier, wouldn't you? 你想早點兒睡覺,對嗎?

      13.陳述部分有must,疑問部分根據實際情況而定。

      如:He must be a doctor, isn't he? 他肯定是醫生,是嗎?

      You must have studied English for fouryears, haven't you? / didn't you? 你一定學了四年英語,對嗎?

      He must have finished it yesterday,didn't he? 他肯定是在昨天完成任務的,是嗎?

      14.陳述部分由neither... nor, either... or 連接的并列主語時,疑問部分根據其實際邏輯意義而定。

      如:Neither you nor I am a teacher, are we? 你不是老師,我也不是,對嗎?

      15.陳述部分主語是指示代詞或不定代詞

      everything,that, nothing, this, 疑問部分主語用it。

      如:Everything is ready, isn't it? 一切就緒,是嗎?

      16.陳述部分為主語從句或并列復合句,疑問部分有三種情況:

      a. 并列復合句的疑問部分,謂語動詞根據鄰近從句的謂語而定。

      如:Mr.Smith had been to Shanghai for several times, heshould have beeninChinanow, shouldn't he ? 史密斯先生曾幾次去過上海,按理說他現在應該在中國,是嗎?

      b. 帶有定語從句,賓語從句的主從復合句,疑問部分謂語根據主句的謂語而定。

      如:Hesaid he wanted to visit Urumchi, didn't he? 他說他想去烏魯木齊看看,他是那樣說的嗎?

      c. 陳述部分主句為第一人稱,謂語是think,believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引導的賓語從句,疑問部分與賓語從句相對應構成反意疑問句。

      如:Idon't think he is clever, is he ? 我認為他并不聰明,是嗎?

      We believe she can do it better, can'tshe? 我們相信她能做得更好,她不能嗎?

      17.陳述部分主語是不定代詞everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑問部分常用復數they,有時也用單數he。

      如:Everyone knows the answer, don't they?/doesn't he? 人人都知道答案,是這樣吧?

      Nobody knowsabout it, do they? / does he? 沒人知道這件事,是吧?

      18. 帶情態動詞dare 或need 的反意疑問句,疑問部分常用need /dare+主語。

      如:We need not do it again, need we ? 我們不必重做一遍,是嗎?

      He dare not say so, dare he? 他不敢這樣說,是嗎?

      當dare, need 為實義動詞時,疑問部分用助動詞do + 主語。

      如:She doesn't dare to go home alone, doesshe? 她不敢獨自回家,是嗎?

      19.陳述部分是“there be”結構的,疑問部分用there 省略主語代詞。

      如:There is something wrong with your watch,isn't there? 你的表有問題,對不對?

      There will not be any trouble, willthere? 不會有麻煩吧,是嗎?

      20.否定前綴不能視為否定詞,其反意疑問句仍用否定形式。

      如:It is impossible, isn't it? 這不可能,不是嗎?

      He is not unkind to his classmates, ishe? 他不會對他同學使壞,是嗎?

      [15.動詞不定式用法]

      (1)作主語,可以用it 代替,it 叫形式主語,動詞不定式放在后面叫真正主語

      1.To learn a foreignlanguage is not easy.

      It is not easy to learn a foreignlanguage.

      2. It’s dangerous to drive very fast.

      (2)作表語

      My idea is to ring him up at once. 我的想法是馬上給他打電話。

      如果主語部分含實義動詞do,且作表語的動詞又是“do”的內容,這時表語不定式的“to”可以省略。如:All I did was wait here. 我能做的就是在這里等。

      (3)常可接動詞不定式作賓語的動詞有:agree (同意), hope (希望),decide (決

      定),need (需要), mean (打算), wish (希望),fail (失敗), want (想要), begin (開始),would like (想要)等。

      He has decided to go to the countryside. 他已決心去鄉下。

      (4)“疑問詞+ 動詞不定式”結構可以作動詞know、think、findout 等的賓語。

      I don’t know who to ask. 我真不知道該問誰。

      (5)“疑問詞+ 動詞不定式”可以作動詞show、teach、ask 等后面的直接賓語。

      She told me where to find the earphone. 她告訴我什么地方可以找到耳機。

      (6)如果賓語太長,可用it 作形式賓語,構成“主語+ 謂語+ it + 賓語補足語(名詞或形容詞) + to do sth”結構,謂語動詞常為find、think、feel 等。

      I found it difficult to stop him. 我發現攔截他很困難。

      (7)動詞不定式可以作介詞的賓語。

      Autumn harvest is about to start. 秋收即將開始。

      I’m worrying aboutwhat to do next. 我正愁下一步該怎么辦。

      (8)作定語的動詞不定式與被修飾詞有動賓關系。

      I have a lot of books to read. 我有許多書要讀。

      此時,如果動詞不定式動詞為不及物動詞,后面的介詞絕對不能省略。

      We had only a cold room to live in. 我們只有寒室一間。

      (9)作定語的動詞不定式與被修飾詞有主謂關系。

      He is always the first to come and thelast to leave. 他總是第一個到,最后一個走。

      (10)作定語的動詞不定式與被修飾詞之間只有修飾關系。

      We have no time to go to town today. 今天我們沒有時間去城里。

      (11)作狀語的動詞不定式常表示目的、原因、方向、結果等。

      I’m glad to meet you. 見到你,我很高興。

      They ran over to welcome the foreignguests. 他們跑過來歡迎外賓。

      (12)不定式復合結構“for sb to do sth”可用作主語、表語、定語、狀語等。

      It’s for her to decide. 這得由她來決定。(表語)

      There are many books for you to read. 這有許多書供你閱讀。(定語)

      The book ids too difficult for childrento read. 這本書太難了,孩子們看不懂。(結果狀語)

      It’s + 形容詞+ for / of + sb + to do sth.

      當上面的形容詞指的是to do sth 的性質時,用介詞for。

      It’s dangerous forchildren to swim in the river. 孩子在這條河里游泳很危險。(游泳這件事情危險)

      當上面的形容詞指的是sb 的性質時,用介詞of。這些形容詞往往修飾人:good,bad, polite, unkind, kind, nice, clever, right, wrong, careful, careless.

      It was careless of you to do that. 你這么做真粗心。(你這個人粗心)

      (13)動詞hear, see, feel, watch, notice, look at, listen to 等后面的

      動詞不定式作賓語補足語時不能帶to, 即常見的形式為: hear sb do sth 等

      Many people like to watch others playgames. 許多人喜歡看別人玩游戲。

      (14)let,make, have 后面的動詞不定式作賓語補足語, 也不能帶to; help后面的動詞不定式作賓語補足語,,to 可有可無。

      She let us meet her at the station, butshe didn’t come. 她讓我們去車站迎接她,可她沒有來。

      (15)十三和十四這兩種情況下的動詞不定式在改被動語態句子時,必須將省略的to 還原,也就是說,動詞后需跟帶to 的動詞不定式。

      We heard him sing every day.

      He was heard to sing every day. 那時每天都聽到他唱歌。

      (16)跟帶to 的動詞不定式作賓語補足語的動詞還有: ask, beg, leave, like, love, hate,prefer, order, teach, tell, blieve, find, know, want, think, understand, wouldlike 等形式為: ask sb to do sth

      Would you like me to visit him? 要不要我拜訪他?

      I would preferyou not to come tomorrow. 我寧愿你明天不要來。

      He ask the driver to stop the motobike. 他要那位司機攔下那輛摩托車。

      (17)區別下列詞組的不同含義:

      ①liketo do sth / like doing sth

      ②stopto do sth / stop doing sth

      ③rememberto do sth / remember doing sth

      ④forgetto do sth / forget doing sth
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