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    1. 英語學科網
      高中
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      實用語法:非謂語動詞用法歸納

      非謂語動詞主要包括不定式、動名詞和現在分詞。為了區分這三種不同的非謂語動詞的用法和含義,我們將分別從三種非謂語動詞在句子中做主語、賓語、賓語補足語、定語、狀語、表語以及一些特殊結構句型等角度來區分其用法和細微含義。

      1.不定式和動名詞作主語的區別

      (1)動名詞作主語通常表示抽象動作;而不定式作主語表示具體動作。

      Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.這里禁止抽煙。(抽象)

      It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽這么多煙對你身體很不好。(具體)

      (2)動名詞作主語時,通常用以表示一件已知的事或經驗。

      不定式短語通常用來表示一件未完成的事或目的。

      Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(經驗)

      Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰時刻開車令人厭煩。(經驗)

      (3)不定式做主語,一般用it當形式主語,把作主語的不定式短語后置。

      It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

      2.不定式、動名詞和分詞作表語的區別

      (1)不定式作表語

      1)不定式作表語一般表示具體動作,特別是表示將來的動作。

      To do two things at a time is to do neither.--次做兩件事等于未做。

      What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建議是立刻開始干。

      2)如果主語是不定式(表示條件),表語也是不定式(表示結果)。

      To see is to believe.百聞不如一見。

      To work means to earn a living.工作就是為了生活。

      3)如果主語是以aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish等為中心的名詞,或以what引導的名詞性從句,不定式作表語是對主語起補充說明  作用。

      His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不遠的將來買一輛豪華轎車。

      The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was to provide large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light into the interior.

      The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant.

      (2)動名詞作表語:動名詞作表語,表示抽象的一般性的行為。

      Our work is serving the people.我們的工作是為人民服務。

      His hobby is collecting stamps.他的愛好是集郵。

      (注)動名詞作表語時與進行時態中的現在分詞形式相同,但其所屬結構迥異,進行時態說明動作是由主語完成的。動名詞做表語,說明主語的性質或情況。

      People cannot but feel puzzled, for they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake.

      His victory in the final was no more convincing than I had expected.

      (3)分詞作表語

      分詞做表語有兩種情況,一種是現在分詞做表語,一種是過去分詞做表語,這兩者區別是考試中經常考到的地方。一般來說,表示心理狀態的動詞如excite, interest等都是及物動詞,漢語意思不是“激動”,“高興”,而是“使激動”、“使高興”,因而現在分詞應該是“令人激動的”、“令人高興的”,過去分詞則是“感到激動的”和“感到高興的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。換句話說,若人對……感興趣,就是somebody is interested in...,若人/物本身有興趣時,就是說sb./sth. is interesting.這類詞常見的有:

      interesting使人感到高興--interested感到高興的

      exciting令人激動的--excited感到激動的

      delighting令人高興的--delighted感到高興的

      disappointing令人失望的--disappointed感到失望的

      encouraging令人鼓舞的--encouraged感到鼓舞的

      pleasing令人愉快的--pleased感到愉快的

      puzzling令人費解的--puzzled感到費解的

      satisfying令人滿意的---satisfied感到滿意的

      surprising令人驚異的--surprised感到驚異的

      worrying令人擔心的--worried感到擔心的

      Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲勞。

      The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要學生學得太多,他們會感到糊涂的。

      The argument is very convincing.他的論點很令人信服。

      They were very excited at the news.聽到這個消息,他們非常激動。

      3.不定式和動名詞作賓語的區別

      英語中大多數動詞既可跟不定式,也可跟動名詞作直接賓語,但有些動詞要求:

      (1)不定式做賓語和賓語補足語

      1)下面的動詞要求不定式做賓語

      attempt企圖 enable能夠 neglect忽視

      afford負擔得起 demand要求 long渴望

      arrange安排 destine注定 mean意欲,打算

      begin開始 expect期望 omit忽略,漏

      appear似乎,顯得 determine決定 manage設法

      cease停止 hate憎恨,厭惡 pretend假裝

      ask問 dread害怕 need需要

      agree同意 desire愿望 love愛

      swear宣誓 volunteer志愿 wish希望

      bear承受 endeavor努力 offer提供

      beg請求 fail不能 plan計劃

      bother擾亂;煩惱 forget忘記 prefer喜歡,寧愿

      care關心,喜歡 happen碰巧 prepare準備

      decide決定 learn學習 regret抱歉,遺憾

      choose選擇 hesitate猶豫 profess表明

      claim要求 hope希望 promise承諾,允許

      start開始 undertake承接 want想要

      consent同意,贊同 intend想要 refuse拒絕

      decide決定 learn學習 vow起

      contrive設法,圖謀 incline有…傾向 propose提議

      seek找,尋覓 try試圖

      2)下面的動詞要求不定式做賓補:動詞+賓語+動詞不定式

      ask要求,邀請 get請,得到 prompt促使

      allow允許 forbid禁止 prefer喜歡,寧愿

      announce宣布 force強迫 press迫使

      bride 收買 inspire鼓舞 request請求

      assist協助 hate憎惡 pronounce斷定,表示

      advise勸告 exhort告誡,勉勵 pray請求

      authorize授權,委托 help幫助 recommend勸告,推薦

      bear容忍 implore懇求 remind提醒

      beg請求 induce引誘 report報告

      compel強迫 invite吸引,邀請, summon傳喚

      command命令 intend想要,企圖 show 顯示

      drive驅趕 mean意欲,打算 train訓練

      cause引起 instruct指示 require要求

      deserve應受 leave使,讓 tell告訴

      direct指導 like喜歡 tempt勸誘

      entitle有資格 order命令 warn告誡

      enable使能夠 need需要 urge激勵,力說

      encourage鼓勵 oblige不得不 want想要

      condemn指責,譴責 lead引起,使得 teach教

      entreat懇求 permit允許 wish希望

      (2)有少數動詞只能用動名詞作賓語

      acknowledge承認,自認 cease 停止 mention說到,講到

      admit 承認 tolerate忍受 dislike不喜歡,討厭

      advocate:提倡,主張 complete完成 dread可怕

      appreciate 感激,欣賞 confess坦白 endure忍受

      avoid避免 contemplate細想 enjoy享有,喜愛

      bear忍受 defer拖延 envy嫉妒

      can't help不禁 delay延遲 escape逃跑,逃避

      can't stand受不了 deny否認 excuse借口

      consider 考慮 detest嫌惡 fancy幻想,愛好

      favor 造成,偏愛 mind 介意 repent悔悟

      figure描繪,計算 miss錯過 resent怨恨

      finish完成,結束不得 pardon原諒,饒恕 resist抵抗,阻止

      forgive原諒 permit 允許 resume恢復

      imagine設想 postpone延遲,延期 risk冒險

      involve卷入,包含 practise 實行,實踐 suggest建議

      hate討厭 prevent阻止 save營救,儲蓄

      keep保持 quit放棄停止 stand堅持,忍受

      loathe非常討厭,厭惡 recall回想

      例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.我很感激兩年前給我出國學習的機會。

      (3)有些動詞后使用動名詞和動詞不定式作賓語的差別

      1)forget to do 忘記要去做某事(此事未做)

      forget doing忘記做過某事(此事已做過或已發生)

      2)stop to do 停止、中斷(某件事),目的是去做另一件事

      stop doing 停止正在或經常做的事

      3)remember to do 記住去做某事(未做)

      remember doing記得做過某事(已做)

      4) regret to do對要做的事遺憾

      regret doing對做過的事遺憾、后悔

      5)try to do努力、企圖做某事

      try doing試驗、試一試某種辦法

      6) mean to do打算,有意要…

      mean doing意味著

      7)go on to do 繼而(去做另外一件事情)

      go on doing 繼續(原先沒有做完的事情)

      8)propose to do 打算(要做某事)

      proposing doing建議(做某事)

      9) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具體行為;+doing sth 表示抽象、傾向概念

      (注)如果這些動詞前有should一詞,其后賓語只跟不定式,不能跟動名詞。例如:

      I should like to see him tomorrow.

      10) need, want, deserve +動名詞表被動意義;+不定式被動態表示“要(修、清理等)”意思。

      Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不記得以前見過那個人嗎?

      You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要記著是明天動身。

      I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不后悔給她講過我的想法。(已講過)

      I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.我很遺憾必須這樣去做,我實在沒辦法。(未做但要做)

      You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。

      Let's try doing the work some other way.讓我們試一試用另外一種辦法來做這工作。

      I didn't mean to hurt your feeling.我沒想要傷害你的感情。

      This illness will mean (your) going to hospital.得了這種病(你)就要進醫院。

      4.不定式、現在分詞和過去分詞作定語的區別

      (1)不定式作定語

      1)不定式與其所修飾的名詞可能是主謂關系

      He was the last one to leave school yesterday.昨天他是最后一個離開教室的。

      The train to arrive was from London.將要到站的火車是從倫敦開來的。

      2)不定式與其所修飾的名詞可能是動賓關系

      Get him something to eat.給他拿點兒東西吃。

      She has a lot of work to do in the morning.早上他有很多工作要做。

      3)不及物動詞構成的不定式做定語,要加上適當的介詞和被修飾的名詞形成邏輯上的動賓關系,這里的介詞不能省去。

      I need a pen to write with.我需要一支筆寫字。

      There is nothing to worry about.沒有什么值得發愁的。

      4)不定式修飾一些表示方向、原因、時間、機會、權利等抽象名詞如:

      ability能力,本領 drive趕,駕駛 movement運動,活動

      ambition抱負,野心 effort努力,嘗試 need需要,需求

      campaign戰役,運動 failure失敗,不及格 opportunity機會

      chance機會 force力,壓力,要點 promise許諾,希望

      courage勇氣 intention意向,意圖 reason理由,原因

      decision決定 method方法,方式 light光,光線,亮光

      determination決心,決定 motive動機,目的 struggle奮斗,努力,

      tendency傾向,趨勢 wish希望,愿望,祝愿

      5)被修飾的名詞前有序數詞、形容詞最高級或next, second, last, only和not a,the等限定詞時候,只能用不定式。

      6)不定代詞something, nothing, little, much, a lot 等習慣上用不定式做定語。

      John will do anything but work on a farm.除了農活,約翰什么都愿意干。

      7)如果其動詞要求用不定式做賓語,或者其形容詞要器接不定式做補語,則相應的名詞一般用不定式做定語。如: tend to do---tendency to do;decide to do = decision to do;be curious to do = curiosity to do

      His wish to buy a car came true.他要買輛車的愿望實現了。

      Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.

      他們放棄這個實驗的決定使我們大吃一驚。

      He is always the first to come and the last to leave.

      他總是第一個到來,最后一個離去。

      (2)分詞作定語

      1)現在分詞表示主動意義,過去分詞一般表示被動含意。

      2)現在分詞表示正在進行,過去分詞表示狀態或做完(完成)的事。

      He rushed into the burning house.他沖進了正在燃燒著的房子。

      The child standing over there is my brother.站在那兒的男孩子是我弟弟。

      The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房間是我們的教室。

      Have you got your watch repaired? 你拿到那個修好的表了嗎?

      He is an advanced teacher.他是個先進教師。

      3)下列不及物動詞也以過去分詞形式做定語或表語,但不具有被動意義,這點要注意:

      departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, frown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-traveled, newly-arrived, recently-come

      (3)不定式和分詞作定語時的時間關系

      一般來說,不定式所表示的動作發生在謂語動詞所表示的動作之后;現在分詞所表示的動作與謂語動詞所表示的動作同時發生;過去分詞表示的動作發生在謂語動詞所表示的動作之前。例如:

      Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing?

      你要見那位將從北京請來的醫生嗎?

      Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office?

      你要見那位正在辦公室里寫病歷的醫生嗎?

      5.不定式和分詞作狀語的區別

      (1)現在分詞與過去分詞作狀語的區別。

      1)現在分詞作狀語時,現在分詞的動作就是句子主語的動作,它們之間的關系是主動關系。

      He went out shutting the door behind him.

      Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

      由于不知如何辦是好,他去找父母幫忙。

      2)過去分詞作狀語時,過去分詞表示的動作是句子主語承受的動作,它們之間的關系是被動關系。

      Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

      Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them.

      (2)動詞不定式和分詞作狀語的區別

      1)分詞作狀語一般表示伴隨,而不定式常常表示目的。

      They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他們站在路邊談論著這個計劃。(伴隨)

      They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他們站在路邊為的是談論這個計劃。(目的)

      2)分詞作狀語放在句子開頭,除表示原因之外有時表示時間或條件。動詞不定式作狀語時,除了表示目的以外,還表示結果或原因。

      Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在專心讀書,他忘了吃午飯的時間。(原因)

      Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔細讀書時,發現了一些從前不知道的東西。(時間)

      Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔細閱讀,你會學到一些新的東西。(條件)

      His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太窮,不能維持他的生活。(結果)

      The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf.這男孩個子不夠高,手伸不到書架。(結果)

      We are glad to hear the news.我們很高興聽到這消息。(原因)

      (3)下面一些句型是不定式做狀語時候應該注意的:

      a:not/never too…to, too…not to , but/only too… to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意義

      b:做結果狀語的不定式只能出現在句子的末尾,常見的不定式動詞有:find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce 等。

      c:不定式做狀語時,其邏輯主語一般為句子的主語,否則用for引導主語。

      6.非謂語動詞常考的其它結構

      (1)疑問詞+不定式結構

      疑問詞who,what,which,when,where和how后加不定式可構成一種特殊的不定式短語。它在句中可以用作主語、賓語、表語和雙重賓語。如:

      When to start has not been decided.何時動身尚未決定。(主語)

      I don't know what to do.我不知道該怎么辦。(賓語)

      The difficulty was how to cross the river.困難在于如何過河。(表語)

      I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告訴你哪里可以買到此書。(雙重賓語)

      注)A.有時疑問詞前可用介詞,如:

      I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。

      B.動詞know 后面不能直接跟不定式作賓語,只能跟疑問詞(如:how, what)+不定式:

      While still a young boy, Tom knew to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen.

      (2)介詞except和but作“只有…,只能…”講時跟不定式結構(but與不帶to的不定式連用)。

      When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help but getting your shoes wet.

      (3)不帶to的不定式

      1)在表示生理感覺的動詞后的不定式不帶to。這類詞有:

      feel 覺得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear聽到

      watch注視 listen to聽 perceive察覺,感知

      notice注意 see看見 look at看 hear聽

      On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue.

      2)另一類是某些使役動詞,如make, let,have等。如:

      Let him do it.讓他做吧。

      I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。

      (注):

      ①上述感覺動詞與使役動詞轉換為被動結構時.其后的不定式一般需帶to,如:

      He was seen to come.

      The boy was made to go to bed early.

      ②在動詞find與help之后,不定式可帶to亦可不帶to,如:

      He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season.他發現羊在此季節越出柵欄,感到驚訝。

      3)在do nothing/anything/everything but(except)結構中。例如:

      Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看電視別的什么也沒有干。

      但是,如果謂語動詞不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式則仍須帶。

      The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.醫生除了讓他戒煙,其它什么都沒有說。

      There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他們沒有別有別的辦法。

      (4)不定式與動名詞的邏輯主語和分詞獨立結構

      1)不定式的邏輯主語為:for +名詞(或代詞賓格)+ 不定式。例如:

      I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我發現他—個人干這活是不可能的。

      (注)在表示人物性格、特性等的形容詞后面,常用of引出不定式的邏輯主語。例如:

      It was wise of him to do that.他那樣做是明智的。

      2)動名詞的邏輯主語為;①人稱代詞的所有格+動名詞;②名詞's+動名詞。例如:

      Tom insisted on my going with them.他堅持要我和他們一起去。

      He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜歡他妻子工作得很晚。

      3) 某些形容詞,如:careless等不定式后可以加of來引導出其邏輯主語。這類詞主要有:absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel ,selfish, wicked, wrong等

      It is very kind of you to help me.你幫助我太好了。

      間或也可用for + there to be表示(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

      It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遺憾了公司里有這么多的麻煩。

      7.非謂語動詞中的有關句型

      (1)動名詞作主語的句型

      1)Doing...+ v. Reading is an art.閱讀是門藝術。Seeing is believing.眼見為實。

      2) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名詞+doing sth.

      It is no use crying.哭沒有用。It is no good objecting.反對也沒有用。

      It is a great fun playing football.打籃球很有趣。

      It is a waste of time trying to explain.設法解釋是浪費時間。

      3)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容詞)+ doing sth.

      It is useless speaking.光說沒用。

      It is nice seeing you again.真高興又遇到了你。

      It is good Playing chess after supper.晚飯后弈棋挺好。

      It is expensive running this car.開這種小車是浪費。
      2019年原創資源大賽
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